Ancient hidden knowlege and hidden history





Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time.

For other uses, see Cronus (disambiguation).


Saturnus fig274.png

Abode Earth

Symbol Sickle, Scythe & Harpe

Consort Rhea

Parents Uranus and Gaia

Siblings Rhea, Oceanus, Hyperion, Theia, Coeus, Phoebe, Iapetus, Crius, Mnemosyne, Tethys and Themis

Children Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, Chiron

Roman equivalent Saturn

Greek deities





Aquatic deities

Chthonic deities

Mycenaean deities

Personified concepts

Other deities




The Twelve Titans

Oceanus and Tethys,

Hyperion and Theia,

Coeus and Phoebe,

Cronus and Rhea,

Mnemosyne, Themis,

Crius, Iapetus

Children of Oceanus

Oceanids, Potamoi

Children of Hyperion

Helios, Selene, Eos

Daughters of Coeus

Leto and Asteria

Sons of Iapetus

Atlas, Prometheus,

Epimetheus, Menoetius

Sons of Crius

Astraeus, Pallas, Perses






Cronus /ˈkroʊnəs/ or both Cronos and Kronos /ˈkroʊnɒs/[1] (Greek: Κρόνος [krónos]) was in Greek mythology the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus.


Cronus was usually depicted with a Harpe, Scythe or a Sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.




1 Greek mythology and early myths

1.1 Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus

1.2 Sibylline Oracles

2 Name and comparative mythology

3 El, the Phoenician Cronus

4 Roman mythology and later culture

5 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology

6 References

7 External links


Greek mythology and early myths


In ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony, Cronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus. Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus' mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatonchires and one-eyed Cyclopes, in the Tartarus, so that they would not see the light. Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus.[2]


Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush. When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle, castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea. From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged.[2] For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons Titenes (Τιτῆνες; according to Hesiod meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed) for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act.

Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus)


In an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion. In doing so, he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly.


After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them. He and his sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. The period in which Cronus ruled was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.


Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children. Another child Cronus is reputed to have fathered is Chiron, by Philyra.

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children, Poseidon


Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son.


Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia.


Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, and then his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes who forged for him his thunderbolts, Poseidon's trident and Hades' helmet of darkness.


In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Hecatonchires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus, however, Atlas, Epimetheus, Menoetius, Oceanus and Prometheus were not imprisoned following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans.


Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. In another version[citation needed], the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil's Aeneid[citation needed], it is Latium to which Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus).


One other account referred by Robert Graves[3] (who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes) it is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just like he had done with his father Uranus before. However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era (when Tzetzes wrote).

Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus


In a Libyan account related by Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), Cronus or Saturn, son of Uranus and Titea, is said to have reigned over Italy, Sicily, and Northern Africa. He cites as evidence the heights in Sicily that were in his time known as Cronia. Cronus, joined by the Titans, makes war against and eventually defeats his brother Jupiter, who reigns in Crete, and his brother-in-law Hammon, who reigns at Nysa, an island on the river Triton, somewhere in Africa.


Cronus takes his sister Rhea from Hammon, to be his own wife. Cronus in turn is defeated by Hammon's son Bacchus or Dionysus, who appoints Cronus' and Rhea's son, Jupiter Olympus, as governor over Egypt. Bacchus and Jupiter Olympus then join their forces to defeat the remaining Titans in Crete, and on the death of Bacchus, Jupiter Olympus inherits all the kingdoms, becoming lord of the world. (Diodorus, Book III)

Sibylline Oracles


Cronus is again mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles, particularly book three, which makes Cronus, 'Titan' and Iapetus, the three sons of Uranus and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronus is made king over all. After the death of Uranus, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus' and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans. Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronus to declare and fight the first of all wars against them. This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children.

Name and comparative mythology


H. J. Rose in 1928[4] observed that attempts to give Kronos a Greek etymology had failed.


Recently, Janda (2010) offers a genuinely Indo-European etymology of "the cutter", from the root *(s)ker- "to cut" (Greek κείρω (keirō), c.f. English shear), motivated by Cronus' characteristic act of "cutting the sky" (or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus). The Indo-Iranian reflex of the root is kar, generally meaning "to make, create" (whence karma), but Janda argues that the original meaning "to cut" in a cosmogonic sense is still preserved in some verses of the Rigveda pertaining to Indra's heroic "cutting", like that of Cronus resulting in creation:


RV 10.104.10 ārdayad vṛtram akṛṇod ulokaṃ "he hit Vrtra fatally, cutting [> creating] a free path"

RV 6.47.4 varṣmāṇaṃ divo akṛṇod "he cut [> created] the loftiness of the sky."


This may point to an older Indo-European mytheme reconstructed as *(s)kert wersmn diwos "by means of a cut he created the loftiness of the sky".[5] The myth of Cronus castrating Uranus parallels the Song of Kumarbi, where Anu (the heavens) is castrated by Kumarbi. In the Song of Ullikummi, Teshub uses the "sickle with which heaven and earth had once been separated" to defeat the monster Ullikummi,[6] establishing that the "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth, in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between heaven (imagined as a dome of stone) and earth enabling the beginning of time (Chronos) and human history.[7]


During antiquity, Cronus was occasionally interpreted as Chronos, the personification of time;[8] according to Plutarch the Greeks believed that Cronus was an allegorical name for Chronos.[9] In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was also interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence. As the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which consumed all things, a concept that was definitely illustrated when the Titan king devoured the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.[citation needed] During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe.


A theory debated in the 19th century, and sometimes still offered somewhat apologetically,[10] holds that Kronos is related to "horned", assuming a Semitic derivation from qrn.[11] Andrew Lang's objection, that Cronus was never represented horned in Hellenic art,[12] was addressed by Robert Brown,[13] arguing that in Semitic usage, as in the Hebrew Bible qeren was a signifier of "power". When Greek writers encountered the Levantine deity El, they rendered his name as Kronos.[14]


Robert Graves proposed that cronos meant "crow", related to the Ancient Greek word corōnē (κορώνη) "crow", noting that Cronus was depicted with a crow, as were the deities Apollo, Asclepius, Saturn and Bran.[15]

El, the Phoenician Cronus


When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and, later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El, by interpretatio graeca, with Cronus. The association was recorded c. AD 100 by Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history, as reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I.10.16.[16] Philo's account, ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Taautus the son of Misor and inventor of writing.[17]

Roman mythology and later culture

4th-century Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum.

Main article: Saturn (mythology)


While the Greeks considered Cronus a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder, believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans, the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity, by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus. Consequently, while the Greeks considered Cronus merely an intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman religion. The Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honour, and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom.


His association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age eventually caused him to become the god of "time", i.e., calendars, seasons, and harvests—not now confused with Chronos, the unrelated embodiment of time in general; nevertheless, among Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria and during the Renaissance, Cronus was conflated with the name of Chronos, the personification of "Father Time",[8] wielding the harvesting scythe.


As a result of Cronus' importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture. The seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week is called in Latin Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"), which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. In astronomy, the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. It is the outermost of the Classical planets (those that are visible with the naked eye).

Nehemiah and ezra bible contradiction


The portions of Scripture that are probably the most often attacked by atheists, Muslims and Bible bashers as "proving" that the Bible is not the inerrant words of God are the two contradictory lists of the numbers of those who returned from Babylon to Jerusalem during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.


In Ezra Chapter Two we find one list that is similar in many ways to that found in Nehemiah Chapter Seven, but there are also many obvious differences, and it is these different numbers that have given rise to attacks on the Bible itself as being the inerrant word of God, and have caused many Christians to doubt the truth of our Holy Bible.


In Ezra Chapter Two and in Nehemiah Chapter Seven there are about thirty-three family units that appear in both lists of Israelites returning from Babylon to Judea. Of these 33 family units listed in Ezra and Nehemiah, nineteen of the family units are identical, while fourteen show discrepancies in the number of members within the family units . Two of the discrepancies differ by 1, one differs by 4, two by 6, two differ by 9, another differs by 11, another two by 100, another by 201, another differs by 105, a further family differs by 300, and the largest difference is the figure for the sons of Azgad, a difference of 1,100 between the accounts of Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7.


Not only do many of the numbers not agree in each list, but there is a further problem. Both Ezra and Nehemiah give the same total of the whole congregation as being 42,360. But as one Bible scoffer named Dennis McKinsey writes: "We have a listing of the subclans that returned from the Captivity and the number of people in each. In the KJV, out of approximately thirty-five subclans listed over half of the numbers are in disagreement. Furthermore, someone doesn't know how to add very well because the totals are in error. Ezra 2:64 says `The whole congregation together was 42,360,' when one can see by easily adding the figures together that the total is 29,818. Nehemiah 7:66 also says, `The whole congregation together was 42,360' when one need only add those figures to see that it's actually 31,089. Ezra erred by 12,542, and Nehemiah erred by 11,271."


There have been many attempts to reconcile these different numbers, but most of them seem to me to fall short of giving an adequate explanation. Unfortunately, most "Christian" apologetic sites and books usually end up with the stated position that this is a case of "many scribal errors" in all Hebrew texts, and that "only the originals were inspired". The end result is that they cave in to the Bible mockers and side with their view that there is no inerrant Bible in any language on the earth today.


Among the suggested ways to reconcile the different numbers, some Christians have offered the explanation that the two censuses were taken at two different times, once at the beginning of the journey and the other at the end, or perhaps several years later. However a close reading of the texts shows that both lists are referring to the same event - "the children of the province that went up out of the captivity, whom Nebuchadnezzar had carried away into Babylon, and came again unto Jerusalem and Judah."


They also tell us that some people may have enrolled their names on the list, then changed their minds and decided not to go after all, and that others later decided to go. They also suggest that some died on the way, and others were born, but that the total ended up being the same anyway - 42,360.


The problem I have with this view is that none of this is stated in Scripture itself and it stretches the imagination to the breaking point to think that all these differences would end up giving us the same final number of 42,360. None would die in most groups, but 1000 died in another. This is a little hard to believe. Neither does it explain the 12,000 to 13,000 people that are not numbered in either list.


One prominent, and sadly, typical Christian Apologetic site offers the usual lame explanation of "scribal errors". In answer to why both Ezra 2:64 and Nehemiah 7:66 agree that the total for the whole congregation was 42,360, yet when the totals are added, Ezra has 29,818 and Nehemiah 31,089, this Christian apologist says: "The original texts must have had the correct totals, but somewhere along the line of transmission, a scribe made an error in one of the lists, and changed the total in the other so that they would match, without first totaling up the numbers for the families in each list. There is the suggestion that a later scribe upon copying out these lists purposely put down the totals for the whole assembly who were in Jerusalem at his time, which because it was later would have been larger."


Well, this may be this typical Christian apologist's view of God's preservation of His inerrant words, but it certainly is not mine. I have also read other attempts to reconcile the differences between these two lists, and a few commentators like Jamieson, Faussett and Brown refer to the comments of a certain Mr. Alting who gives an interesting attempt to harmonize the two accounts. However, I cannot get his numbers to add up right; you still end up with two very different lists; and it doesn't explain the different numbers of singing men and women recorded in Ezra 2:65 and Nehemiah 7:67 - (200 versus 245).


Others like Daniel Wallace just admit they cannot explain it. He says: "The same total is given in Nehemiah 7:66, but it is difficult to understand how this number is reached, since the numbers of people listed in the constituent groups do not add up to 42,360. The list in vv. 3-60 apparently is not intended to be exhaustive, but the basis of the selectivity is unclear."


So how do we explain these very real differences without denying the inerrancy of Scripture? You may not agree with my point of view, but I believe it makes a lot more sense than the usual explanations about people changing their minds one way or the other, and the deaths and births along the way.


First of all, when we look at the names, we find that certain names are mentioned in alternate forms. Among the Jews of that time a person had a name, title, and surname. Thus, the children of Hariph (Nehemiah 7:24) are the children of Jorah (Ezra 2:18) both of whom number 112. The children of Sia (Nehemiah 7:47) are also the children of Siaha (Ezra 2:44).


Some names are but a minor variation of another - "the CHILDREN of Azmaveth, forty and two" in Ezra 2:24 are the same as "the MEN of Beth-azmaveth forty and two" in Nehemiah 7:28.


The most important thing in how I think this apparent contradiction can be explained is to notice who exactly is being counted in these two different lists. It is the MEN and not the women who are being counted, unless the women are specifically mentioned as they are in only one verse in both Ezra 2:65 and Nehemiah 7:67.


Only in this one verse in both accounts do we read: "The whole congregation together was 42,360, Beside their servants AND THEIR MAIDS, of whom there were 7,337..."


For God to give only the number of MEN in a group is very common both in the Old and New Testaments. "And the children of Israel journeyed from Ramases to Succoth, about 600,000 on foot that were MEN, BESIDE children." Exodus 12:37


"And they that had eaten were about 5,000 MEN, beside women and children." Matthew 14:21. Yet when we compare the same event recorded in both Mark and Luke we read: "And they that did eat of the loaves were about 5000 MEN." - Mark 6:44. "For they were about 5000 MEN" - Luke 9:14. The word in all three gospel accounts is the word for "men, or males" as opposed to general term that may include both male and female.


Notice very carefully what it says at the beginning of both lists found in Nehemiah 7:7 and in Ezra 2:2: "The number of the MEN (enosh -"men" and not "women") of the people of Israel: The children of Paroah, 2,172" etc.


By comparing one with the other, we see that only the MEN were counted in these two lists. Here are just a few examples: "the CHILDREN of Azmaveth" Ezra 2:24 are "the MEN of Beth-azmaveth" Nehemiah 7:28; "the CHILDREN OF GIBBAR, 95" of Ezra 2:20 are "the MEN of GIBEON, 95" found in Nehemiah 7:25, and "the CHILDREN of Bethlehem" in Ezra 2:21 are "the MEN of Bethlehem" in Nehemiah 7:26. There are two different Hebrew words used in the two lists. The one is ben #1121 and means "children, or sons" and the other is #582 enoshe which means "men" and not "women". The distinct word for "daughter" is #1323 beth, and the word for woman is #802 eesh-shah, and neither is used in either of the two lists.


The two principal differences to explain between these two lists are: #1 - the different numbers in several verses, and #2 - the differences between the total number in each list (Ezra differs by 12,542, and Nehemiah differs by 11,271) with the same total of 42,360 given in both.


Here is what I think happened. In Ezra 2:1 we have a statement that indicates that the numbers found in Ezra's list is the true number of those who made up the different groups who left Babylon and journeyed to Jerusalem. The Census in Ezra is the accurate number.


Here we read: "Now THESE ARE the children of the province that went up out of the captivity, of those which had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away unto Babylon, and came again unto Jerusalem and Judah, every one unto HIS city."


However, what we have recorded in Nehemiah 7:5 is a list that was not the accurate and true number. There we read these important words of Nehemiah: "And I FOUND A REGISTER of the genealogy of them which came up at the first, AND FOUND WRITTEN THERIN..."


Nehemiah is merely reporting the numbers in the erroneously written register he found, but the true numbers are given by the inspiration of God in Ezra Chapter Two. There are several things written in Scripture that are not true. "There is no God" (Psalm 14:1). "Ye shall not surely die." (Genesis 3:4); "Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan and hast a devil?" (John 8:48). In Nehemiah 6:5-7 itself we read the following: "Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me with an open letter in his hand, wherein was written, It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king...And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying, There is a king in Judah."


What was written in the letter was not true, and neither was what was written in the register Nehemiah found.


The second point of contention is the differing numbers listed in each account where the total is given as 42,360. Some aplogists tell us that the additional 12,542 may refer to the number of women or wives in the group, but this leaves us with only about one of every three men being married. This is highly improbable. When others tell us it may refer to both the women and the children, their case gets even worse.



- Language and style are identical.

- Order of paragraphs is identical.

- They contain large groups under the name of a region or city in Israel where the family had lived before the exile.

- The names on Ezra’s list are generally repeated in Nehemiah’s list.

- Lots of numbers are the same.

- Both lists are followed by the figure of returned people: 42,360.

- Neither the sum of people on Ezra’s list, nor that of Nehemiah’s list reaches the number of 42,360 returned people.



- Names that are not spelled identically.

- The list of Nehemiah contains more registered families than the list of Ezra.

- In a few cases the list of Nehemiah gives fewer people than Ezra

- Ezra’s list gives eleven leaders; Nehemiah’s list gives twelve leaders, including Nahamani.ME-in my ayes if two people write two books at different times and try keep the same total they were trying to make that number not record it,and if they have the same writing patterns i would say it was done by the same person.And how they thaught not explaining how the numbers did not add up just tells you that they did not really see this comming,people of those days would have been simple to us even though they had deep understanding of a time wee do not,for they worshiped the stars as the heven "not a lot of imagination if you ask me".I think if god wanted a rule book for men he wouldnt have asked about 20 different messiahs from the same regions of time,or such incompitant people like ezra and nehemiah "if you ask me the great Circe sounds like a good leader for his time but as for ezra and nehemiah they seem just like polititions of the day who make the facts fit there agenda".

Darius I "the Great" (549-486 BCE) was a king of Persia who ruled for 35 years, from September 522 BCE to October 486 BCE. He was the third Achaemenian king and

was considered by many to be “the greatest of the Achaemenian kings.” During his reign, Darius completed the work of his predecessors, and not only did he “hold

together the empire,” but he also extended it in all directions. Thus,

with Darius as Great King, Achaemenian Persia became the largest empire in the world.


Darius was responsible for more than just the expansion of the empire. He also centralized the administration of the empire, encouraged cultural and artistic

pursuits, introduced legal reforms, and developed juridical systems. In addition, many large building projects were started under Darius’ rule, including the

construction of a new capital city called Persepolis.


As much as Darius’ reign can be characterized by these achievements, it can also be characterized by a number of upheavals and battles, and general unrest among

the citizens. There were two revolts in Babylonia and three in Susania. The Ionian Revolt lasted from 499 to 493 BCE and was a large-scale rebellion by many

regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule.


Darius planned an expedition to Greece in order to punish the Greeks for supporting the Ionian Revolt. His health, however, began to fail and he chose Xerxes I,

his oldest son by Atossa, to be his successor. He never went to Greece, as he died in Persis in October 486 BCE.


Zerubbabel: Type of Messiah "me -from what ive researched and been convinced of that solomon as a person did not exist,i will bring forth some of what has lead

me to this"


Although Jeconiah’s descendants were cursed in that they could not sit on the throne of David as the king of Israel , clear messianic promises were made to

Jeconiah’s grandson, Zerubbabel. Zerubbabel returned from the Babylonian captivity and helped rebuild the temple. Because he was a direct descendant of David,

Solomon and Rehoboam, he was eligible to sit as king. The Scriptures are clear, from Zerubbabel’s genealogy, that he is from King David through Rehoboam and

Jeconiah. Zerubbabel’s genealogy follows:



1 Chronicles 3:10 “And Solomon's son was Rehoboam, Abia his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, (11) Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son,(12)

Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, 13 Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, (14) Amon his son, Josiah his son.(15) And the sons

of Josiah were, the firstborn Johanan, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. (16) And the sons of Jehoiakim: Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah

his son. (17) And the sons of Jeconiah; Assir, Salathiel his son, (18) Malchiram also, and Pedaiah, and Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. (19) And the

sons of Pedaiah were, Zerubbabel, and Shimei: and the sons of Zerubbabel; Meshullam, and Hananiah,”



However, the kingdom was taken away from the Jews, and Israel was under the authority of a foreign power. Zerubbabel was recognized only as the governor and

not the king of Israel . The curse was in effect as Zerubbabel did not sit as the king of Israel .



Haggai 1:1 “In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto

Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah,”



There is no Scripture in the Bible to indicate that the curse was lifted off Jeconiah’s descendants which would include his grandson, Zerubbabel. Although

the curse was not lifted off Jeconiah’s descendants, clear messianic promises were made to Zerubbabel by the prophet Haggai. The prophet Haggai shows a direct

link between Zerubbabel and the Messiah. The Messiah is addressed and described by Haggai under the name of Zerubbabel. By addressing the Messiah in the name

of Zerubbabel, a clear messianic link was established from David, Solomon, Rehoboam, Jeconiah to Zerubbabel. The Scriptures by Haggai follow:



Haggai 2:21 “Speak to Zerubbabel, governor of Judah , saying, I will shake the heavens and the earth;


(22) And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen; and I will overthrow the chariots, and those

that ride in them; and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by the sword of his brother.


(23) In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, saith the LORD, and will make thee as a signet: for

I have chosen thee, saith the LORD of hosts.”



The above Scriptures could not have been about Zerubbabel, but have to be directly related to the Messiah. There are several indicators in Haggai 2:21-23 which

completely rule out Zerubbabel. In Zerubbabel’s day, God did not shake the heavens and earth. The kingdoms of the Gentiles were not overthrown. Zerubbabel was

never made as a signet as he never was the king of Israel but only a governor of Judah . The person of the Messiah is God’s signet.


This promise by God was to show that although the kingdom was taken away, under the Messiah it would be restored. All of this awaits for a time in the future and

the rule of the King Messiah. The key is the Messiah is addressed as Zerubbabel. This means the messianic line must continue through him.


God will shake the heavens and the earth at the time the messianic kingdom is being set up. The Bible refers to this time as the Day of the LORD.



Isaiah 13:9 “Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out

of it. (10) For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall

not cause her light to shine.


(13) Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger.”



During the Day of the LORD the nations of the earth will be united in an attempt to destroy Israel and take Jerusalem . This event will trigger the coming of

the Messiah to overthrow these nations and set up His everlasting Kingdom over all the earth. The Messiah will stand on the Mount of Olives and destroy the armies

that attempt to destroy Jerusalem . With His Divine power, He will annihilate these armies. The prophet Zechariah shows this:



Zechariah 14:1 “Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee. (2) For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to

battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the

people shall not be cut off from the city.


(3) Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. (4) And his feet shall stand in that day upon the

mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof


(12) And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem ; Their flesh shall consume away while they

stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.


(9) And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.


(16) And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the

King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.


(17) And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall

be no rain.”



Only three people in the Hebrew Scriptures are addressed as the Messiah: David, Solomon and Zerubbabel. They are all of the kingly line and all become a type

of the Messiah. Zerubbabel was addressed as the Messiah in Haggai 2:23. Solomon was addressed as the Messiah in Psalm 72, and David was addressed in several

places as the Messiah. One example from Ezekiel follows:



Ezekiel 34:23 “And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd.”



The genealogy of King David through Rehoboam was maintained until the close of the Old Testament about 400 BC. The only progenitor for King Messiah, as recorded

in the Bible, has to come through Zerubbabel. The only genealogical line from David to King Messiah, after the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity, is

that of Zerubbabel. There are no others that are recorded. God has very carefully narrowed the Messianic line directly through Zerubbabel. The Bible lists the

descendants of Zerubbabel to the sixth generation after him.


There is no other descendant of King David whose genealogy is maintained after the captivity. Zerubbabel is the only progenitor in the Bible for King Messiah.

The Scriptures to show that Zerubbabel’s genealogy was maintained until the sixth generation follow:



“And the sons of Pedaiah were, Zerubbabel, and Shimei: and the sons of Zerubbabel; Meshullam, and Hananiah, and Shelomith their sister: And Hashubah, and Ohel,

and Berechiah, and Hasadiah, Jushabhesed, five. And the sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah, and Jesaiah: the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons of Obadiah,

the sons of Shechaniah. And the sons of Shechaniah; Shemaiah: and the sons of Shemaiah; Hattush, and Igeal, and Bariah, and Neariah, and Shaphat, six. And the

sons of Neariah; Elioenai, and Hezekiah, and Azrikam, three. And the sons of Elioenai were, Hodaiah, and Eliashib, and Pelaiah, and Akkub, and Johanan, and

Dalaiah, and Anani, seven.” 1 Chronicles 3:19-24



The genealogy of Zerubbabel, as recorded in the Book of 1 Chronicles has a very unique factor. This further shows the Bible’s special attention given to

Zerubbabel and his descendants. The Book of 2 Chronicles ends with Cyrus, the King of Persia, allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple.

Zerubbabel was with the first group of Jews that returned. This event occurred in approximately 535 BC. The last verse recorded in 2Chronicles follows:



“Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia , All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem ,

which is in Judah . Who is there among you of all his people? The LORD his God be with him, and let him go up.” 2 Chronicles 36:23



The unique factor is that Zerubbabel’s genealogy was kept for six generations after the close of 2 Chronicles! The genealogy of Zerubbabel was maintained by

some person or persons for approximately 100-150 years after the completion of 2 Chronicles. God sent several prophets to Israel after the return from Babylon .

These prophets included Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. It is entirely probable that the prophets were monitoring Zerubbabel’s genealogy because they were aware

of the Messianic significance.


Haggai was well aware of Zerubbabel as he prophesied of King Messiah in the name of Zerubbabel, Haggai 2:21-23. Malachi was the last prophet of Israel until the

coming of King Messiah. Because Malachi was a prophet, he would have the authority to add to the Bible. Malachi probably updated Zerubbabel’s genealogy until

he passed away. With his passing, no person would have the authority to add to the Bible; thus Zerubbabel’s genealogy ended. The last progenitor of King

Messiah’s line in the Bible is Zerubbabel.


The Messianic line runs from David to Solomon to Rehoboam to Jeconiah to Zerubbabel to the Messiah. There is no place in the Bible which shows the curse on the

kingly line has been lifted. Because of the curse, anyone born of a human father and claims to be the Messiah will have the curse of Jeconiah to block such

a claim. The Messiah of Israel cannot have a human father.


Cyrus The Great


Cyrus the Great (ca.600 - 529 BCE) was a towering figure in the history of mankind. As the "father of the Iranian nation", he was the first world leader to be referred to as "The Great". Cyrus founded the first world empire - and the second Iranian dynastic empire (the Achaemenids) - after defeating the Median dynasty and uniting the Medes with the other major Iranian tribe, the Persians.


Etymology and lineage


The name "Cyrus" (a transliteration of the Greek Kυρoς) is the Greek version of the Old-Persian kûruš or Khûrvaš meaning "sun-like": the noun khûr denotes "sun" and -vaš is a suffix of likeness. In the Cyrus cylinder (see below), the great king declares his ancestry as a Persian king. The first leader of the Achaemenid dynasty was king Achaemenes of Anshan (ca.700BCE). He was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan and inscriptions indicate that when the latter died, two of his sons shared the throne: Cyrus I of Anshan and Ariaramnes of Persia. They were succeeded by their respective sons: Cambyses I and Arsames. Arsames was the ancestor of Darius the Great, while Cambyses was the father of Cyrus the Great. Mandane, Cyrus' mother, was the daughter of king Astyages, who was the last emperor of the Median dynastic empire (728-550BCE). Cyrus became king of Anshan after his father's death in 559BCE, and initially reigned as Median vassal king of the Persian tribes. He established his residence at Pasargadae in Pars province, the centre of the Pasargadae tribe, to which the Achaemenid clan belonged. Little is known of Cyrus' early life as the few known sources have been damaged or lost. According to the ancient historians, Astyages was told in a dream that his grandson, the baby Cyrus, would overthrow him. To avoid this he ordered that the baby be killed. However the official delegated with the task gave the baby to a shepherd instead. When Cyrus was ten years old, the deception was discovered by Astyages, but because of the boy's outstanding qualities he was allowed to live in exile with his mother. Cyrus then revolted against Astyages in 554BCE and in 550BCE the prophecy came true when Cyrus entered Ecbatana (modern-day Hamadan), effectively conquering the Median Empire. Upon his victory over his grandfather he founded a government for his new kingdom, incorporating both Median and Persian nobles as civilian officials. He thus began to build the first world empire.



'Cyrus' Empire Building


As the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, one of Cyrus' objectives was to gain power over the Mediterranean coast and secure Asia Minor. Croesus of Lydia, Nabonidus of Babylonia and Amasis II of Egypt joined in alliance with Sparta to try and thwart Cyrus - but this was to no avail. Hyrcania, Parthia and Armenia were already part of the Median Kingdom. Cyrus moved further east to annex Drangiana, Arachosia, Margiana and Bactria to his territories. After crossing the Oxus, he reached the Jaxartes. There, he built fortified towns with the object of defending the farthest frontier of his kingdom against the Iranian nomadic tribes of Central Asia such as the Scythians. The exact limits of Cyrus' eastern conquests are not known, but it is possible that they extended as far as the Peshawar region in modern Pakistan. After his eastern victories, he repaired to the west and invaded Babylon. On 12 October 539BCE Cyrus, "without spilling a drop of blood", annexed the Chaldaean empire of Babylonia - and on October 29 he entered Babylon, arrested Nabonidus and assumed the title of "King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the world". Almost immediately he then extended his control over the Arabian peninsula and the Levant also quickly submitted to Persian rule. Although Cyrus did not conquer Egypt, by 535BCE all the lands up to the Egyptian borders had acceded to Persian dominance. Newly conquered territories had a measure of political independence, being ruled by satraps. These (usually local) governors took full responsibility for the administration, legislation and cultural activities of each province. According to Xenophon, Cyrus created the first postal system in the world, and this must have helped with intra-Empire communications. Babylon, Ecbatana, Pasargadae and Susa were used as Cyrus' command centres. Cyrus' spectacular conquests triggered the age of Empire Building, as carried out by his successors as well as by the later Greeks and Romans.


Cyrus' religion


Almost nothing is known about Cyrus' personal beliefs, but Xenophon reports to us that in religious matters he followed the guidance of the Magians at his court. Although this is not universally agreed, Mary Boyce has argued that Cyrus was indeed a Zoroastrian and that he thus followed in the footsteps of his ancestors, from when they were Median vassals in Anshan. She has pointed out that the fire altars and the mausoleum at Pasargadae demonstrate Zoroastrian practices, and has cited Greek texts as evidence that Zoroastrian priests held positions of authority at Cyrus' court.




Cuneiform records from Babylon suggest that Cyrus died on 4 December 530BCE. However, according to Herodotus, Cyrus was killed near the Aral Sea in July or August 529BCE during a campaign to protect the north­eastern borders of his empire from incursions by the Massagetae. Tomyris, the queen of the Massagetae, had assumed control of her nation's forces after Cyrus had defeated and killed her son Spargapises. She led the attack on the Iranian forces, who suffered heavy casualties as well as losing their leader, Cyrus. After the battle, Tomyris apparently ordered the body of Cyrus to be found so that she could avenge the death of her son. She then dipped Cyrus' head in blood or by some accounts ordered his head to be put into a wine-skin filled with human blood. At Cyrus' death, his son Cambyses II succeeded him. He attacked the Massagetae to recover Cyrus's ravaged body, before burying it at Pasargadae.


The cylinder of Cyrus the Great


The Cyrus cylinder was discovered in 1878CE at the site of Babylon. It is inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform. Now housed in the British Museum, it includes a detailed account by Cyrus of his conquest of Babylon in 539BCE and his subsequent humane treatment of his conquered subjects. It has been hailed as the world's first declaration of human rights. The (incomplete) inscription on the cylinder starts by describing the criminal deeds of the Babylonian king Nabonidus; as well as how Marduk, the Babylonian god, had looked for a new king and chosen Cyrus. It continues with the famous: "I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world" After a description of Cyrus' ancestry and of royal protocol, it goes on to explain how Cyrus established peace and abolished forced labour: "The people of Babylon . . . the shameful yoke was removed from them" The inscription continues by detailing reparative building activities in Babylon as well as asking for prayers for Cyrus. It makes specific reference to the Jews, who have been brought to Babylon - and who Cyrus supported in leaving for their homeland. Further demonstrating his religious tolerance, Cyrus restored the local cults by allowing the gods to return to their shrines. The cylinder describes the Great King not as a conqueror, but as a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown of Mesopotamia. The same text has also been found, in a more complete version, in an inscription discovered in the ancient city of Ur, in Mesopotamia. Both documents corroborate many of the details in Ezra 1:1-5 describing Cyrus supporting the Jews in returning to Judea from captivity to rebuild the Temple in 537BCE. Isaiah 45:1-13 also backs up the idea of Cyrus as a benign and chosen ruler. Before the discovery of the cylinder, many sceptical historians believed that the idea of a Zoroastrian emperor like Cyrus the Great allowing a conquered people like the Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild their Temple was simply not credible and could only be Persian propaganda. Nevertheless, the Cyrus Cylinder, alongside the Biblical and other historical statements, seems to substantiate the idea that Cyrus not only allowed many of the nations he conquered to practice their various religious beliefs - an unprecedented tolerance - but that he even actively assisted captive peoples, including the Jews, to return to their lands of origin. This support was not only political but even financial - as he gave grants both from the Imperial treasury and also from his own personal fortune. The Cylinder has especial resonance for the Iranian peoples and is an integral part of Iran's cultural heritage and national identity. Antedating the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen by more than two millennia, it can also be considered as a world treasure - and the first international declaration of human rights. The text was translated into all the United Nations' official languages in 1971.


Cyrus' Legacy Cyrus_the_Great_australia.JPG


Cyrus the Great is famed as a triumphant conqueror, a superb warrior, and the founder of the greatest empire the world has ever seen. However, with the Cyrus Cylinder and a range of Jewish texts, plus extensive writings by Xenophon, Cyrus is generally more admired as a liberator than a conqueror. Cyrus the Great was mentioned twenty-two times in the Old Testament, where he is unconditionally praised. This followed his active liberation of the Jews from Babylon in 539BCE and his support as more than 40,000 Jews then chose to return to their homeland. Cyrus then funded the subsequent rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. Cyrus was also eulogized by many other writers and his actual or legendary exploits were used as moral instruction or as a source of inspiration for political philosophies. For example, the Greek author and soldier Xenophon believed him to be the ideal ruler, and in the Cyropedia - often considered Xenophon's masterpiece - he offers a fictionalised biography of the great man. This is more "a treatise on political virtue and social organisation" than a history. It was influential in ancient times and then again in the Renaissance. It may have been composed in response to Plato's The Republic, and Plato's Laws seems to refer back to it. Scipio Africanus is said to have always carried a copy of the Cyropedia with him.[1] Later on, in the Renaissance, Spenser, in his The Faerie Queene (1596), says: "For this cause is Xenophon preferred before Plato, for that the one, in the exquisite depth of his judgment, formed a Commune wealth, such as it should be; but the other in the person of Cyrus, and the Persians, fashioned a government, such as might best be: So much more profitable and gracious is doctrine by ensample, then by rule."[2] The English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne named his 1658 discourse The Garden of Cyrus after the benevolent ruler. This dense treatise of hermetic philosophy may be a Royalist criticism upon the autocratic rule of Cromwell. Cyrus' name and his doctrine is still cited and celebrated into modern times. On 12th October 1971 Iran marked the 2500th anniversary of Cyrus' founding of the Persian Empire . The then Shah of Iran, in his speech opening the celebrations, said: "O Cyrus, great King, King of Kings, Achaemenian King, King of the land of Iran. I, the Shahanshah of Iran, offer thee salutations from myself and from my nation. Rest in peace, for we are awake, and we will always stay awake." In 1994, a replica of a bas relief depicting Cyrus the Great was erected in a park in Sydney, Australia . This monument is intended as a symbol for multiculturalism, and to express the coexistence and peaceful cohabitation of people from different cultures and backgrounds.


By pursuing a policy of generosity, instead of repression, Cyrus demonstrated his Greatness. So successful were his policies of conquest, mercifulness and assimilation that the empire continued to thrive for some 200 years after his death. Cyrus' compassionate principles continue to resonate today: his religious and cultural tolerance and commitment to the liberation of enslaved peoples remain an aspiration in our troubled modern world.




Sumer, site of the earliest known civilization,,they claim is the oldest sivilisation but altlantis goes futher back and so does the people they got there high understanding from,so i will lokk into this and try find the proof that convinced me and hope you all do the same even just watching youtube on people who have studied it then look to diss-prove them ,im sure at some point you will be convinced a lot gets hid from the normal person and even high end schollers and proffesors who are not even aloud to know were some high technology they were testing on how it came or were from "need to know basis is the usual story".


located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in the area that later became Babylonia and is now southern Iraq from around Baghdad to the Persian Gulf.


A brief treatment of Sumerian civilization follows. For full treatment, see Mesopotamia, history of: Sumerian civilization.


Sumer was first settled between 4500 and 4000 bc by a non-Semitic people who did not speak the Sumerian language. These people now are called

proto-Euphrateans or Ubaidians, for the village Al-Ubaid, where their remains were first discovered. The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer,

draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. After the

Ubaidian immigration to Mesopotamia, various Semitic peoples infiltrated their territory, adding their cultures to the Ubaidian culture, and creating a high

pre-Sumerian civilization.


The people called Sumerians, whose language became the prevailing language of the territory, probably came from around Anatolia, arriving in Sumer about 3300 bc.

By the 3rd millennium bc the country was the site of at least 12 separate city-states: Kish, Erech, Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash,

Bad-tibira, and Larsa. Each of these states comprised a walled city and its surrounding villages and land, and each worshiped its own deity, whose temple

was the central structure of the city. Political power originally belonged to the citizens, but, as rivalry between the various city-states increased, each

adopted the institution of kingship. An extant document, The Sumerian King List, records that eight kings reigned before the great Flood.


After the Flood, various city-states and their dynasties of kings temporarily gained power over the others. The first king to unite the separate city-states

was Etana, ruler of Kish (c. 2800 bc). Thereafter, Kish, Erech, Ur, and Lagash vied for ascendancy for hundreds of years, rendering Sumer vulnerable to external

conquerors, first the Elamites (c. 2530–2450 bc) and later the Akkadians, led by their king Sargon (reigned 2334–2279 bc). Although Sargon’s dynasty lasted only

about 100 years, it united the city-states and created a model of government that influenced all of Middle Eastern civilization.


After Sargon’s dynasty ended and Sumer recovered from a devastating invasion by the semibarbaric Gutians, the city-states once again became independent.

The high point of this final era of Sumerian civilization was the reign of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, whose first king, Ur-Nammu, published the earliest law

code yet discovered in Mesopotamia.


After 1900 bc, when the Amorites conquered all of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians lost their separate identity, but they bequeathed their culture to their Semitic

successors, and they left the world a number of technological and cultural contributions, including the first wheeled vehicles and potter’s wheels; the first

system of writing, cuneiform; the first codes of law; and the first city-states.


Sumeria, Ancient Sumeria


Primary Author: Robert A. Guisepi


Portions of this work Contributed By:

F. Roy Willis of the University of California


1980 and 2003



The History of Ancient Sumeria including its cities, kings and religions

Now, I swear by the sun god Utu on this very day -- and my younger brothers shall be witness of it in foreign lands where the sons of Sumer are not known, where

people do not have the use of paved roads, where they have no access to the written word -- that I, the firstborn son, am a fashioner of words, a composer of songs,

a composer of words, and that they will recite my songs as heavenly writings, and that they will bow down before my words......


King Shulgi (c. 2100 BC) on the future of Sumerian literature.





Mesopotamia: The First Civilization (supposed-me)



Authorities do not all agree about the definition of civilization. Most accept the view that "a civilization is a culture which has attained a degree of

complexity usually characterized by urban life." In other words, a civilization is a culture capable of sustaining a substantial number of specialists to

cope with the economic, social, political, and religious needs of a populous society. Other characteristics usually present in a civilization include a

system of writing to keep records, monumental architecture in place of simple buildings, and an art that is no longer merely decorative, like that on

Neolithic pottery, but representative of people and their activities. All these characteristics of civilization first appeared in Mesopotamia.


The Geography Of Mesopotamia


Around 6000 B.C., after the agricultural revolution had begun to spread from its place of origin on the northern fringes of the Fertile Crescent, Neolithic

farmers started filtering into the Fertile Crescent itself. Although this broad plain received insufficient rainfall to support agriculture, the eastern section

was watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Known in ancient days as Mesopotamia (Greek for "between the rivers"), the lower reaches of this plain, beginning

near the point where the two rivers nearly converge, was called Babylonia. Babylonia in turn encompassed two geographical areas - Akkad in the north and Sumer,

the delta of this river system, in the south.


Broken by river channels teeming with fish and re-fertilized frequently by alluvial silt laid down by uncontrolled floods, Sumer had a splendid agricultural

potential if the environmental problems could be solved. "Arable land had literally to be created out of a chaos of swamps and sand banks by a 'separation'

of land from water; the swamps ... drained; the floods controlled; and lifegiving waters led to the rainless desert by artificial canals." ^4 In the course

of the several successive cultural phases that followed the arrival of the first Neolithic farmers, these and other related problems were solved by cooperative

effort. Between 3500 B.C. and 3100 B.C. the foundations were laid for a type of economy and social order markedly different from anything previously known. This

far more complex culture, based on large urban centers rather than simple villages, is what we associate with civilization.


[Footnote 4: V. Gordon Childe, New Light on the Most Ancient East (London:


Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954), p. 114.]


Prelude To Civilization


By discovering how to use metals to make tools and weapons, late Neolithic people effected a revolution nearly as far-reaching as that wrought in agriculture.

Neolithic artisans discovered how to extract copper from oxide ores by heating them with charcoal. Then about 3100 B.C., metal workers discovered that copper

was improved by the addition of tin. The resulting alloy, bronze, was harder than copper and provided a sharper cutting edge.


Thus the advent of civilization in Sumer is associated with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the West, which in time spread to Egypt, Europe, and Asia. The

Bronze age lasted until about 1200 B.C., when iron weapons and tools began to replace those made of bronze.


The first plow was probably a stick pulled through the soil with a rope. In time, however, domesticated cattle were harnessed to drag the plow in place of the

farmer. Yoked, harnessed animals pulled plows in the Mesopotamian alluvium by 3000 B.C. As a result, farming advanced from the cultivation of small plots to the

tilling of extensive fields. "By harnessing the ox man began to control and use a motive power other than that furnished by his own muscular energy. The ox was

the first step to the steam engine and gasoline motor." ^5


[Footnote 5: V. Gordon Childe, What Happened in History (New York: Pelican


Books, 1946), p. 74.]


Since the Mesopotamian plain had no stone, no metals, and no timber except its soft palm trees, these materials had to be transported from Syria and Asia Minor.

Water transport down the Tigris and Euphrates solved the problem. The oldest sailing boat known is represented by a model found in a Sumerian grave of about

3500 B.C. Soon after this date wheeled vehicles appear in the form of ass-drawn war chariots. For the transport of goods overland, however, people continued to

rely on the pack ass.


Another important invention was the potter's wheel, first used in Sumer soon after 3500 B.C. Earlier, people had fashioned pots by molding or coiling clay by hand,

but now a symmetrical product could be produced in a much shorter time. A pivoted clay disk heavy enough to revolve of its own momentum, the potter's wheel has been

called "the first really mechanical device."


The Land of the Two Rivers


The word Mesopotamia , derived from the Greek, means literally "between the rivers," but it is generally used to denote the whole plain between and on either side

of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The plain was bordered to the north and east by mountain ranges, in whose foothills, as we have seen, agriculture was first

practiced. To the southwest lay the forbidding deserts of Syria and Arabia . Each year the two great rivers were swollen with the winter snows of the northern

mountains, and each year at flood stage they spread a thick layer of immensely fertile silt across the flood plain where they approached the Persian Gulf . This

delta, a land of swamp rich in fish, wildlife, and date palms, was the most challenging and rewarding of the three natural units into which the river valleys were

divided; and it was here, between 3500 and 3000 B. c., that agricultural settlers created the rich city-states of Sumer , of which the best known is Ur . The delta

could only be made habitable by large-scale irrigation and flood control, which was managed first by a priestly class and then by godlike kings. Except for the

period 2370-2230 B. c., when the Sumerian city-states were subdued by the rulers of Akkad , the region immediately to the north, the Sumerians remained prosperous

and powerful until the beginning of the second millennium B. C.


Immediately to the north of Sumer , where the two rivers came most closely together, the plain was less subject to flooding but made fertile by rainfall and

irrigation. This area, known first as Akkad , was inhabited by Semitic peoples who subdued the Sumerians in the middle of the third millennium; but when a new

Semitic people called the Amorites conquered the area about 2000 B. c. and founded a great new capital city of Babylon ; the area henceforth came to be known

as Babylonia . Except for invasions of Hittites and Kassites, who were Indo-European peoples from Asia , Babylonia continued to dominate Mesopotamia for a thousand



The third natural region, called Assyria , stretched from the north of Babylonia to the Taurus range. Its rolling hills were watered by a large number of streams

flowing from the surrounding mountains as well as by the headwaters of the two great rivers themselves. The Assyrians, a viciously warlike Semitic people, were

able to conquer the whole of Mesopotamia in the eighth and seventh centuries B. c. Thus the history of Mesopotamia can be envisaged as a shift of the center of power

northwards, from Sumer to Babylonia and then to Assyria.


An Introduction To Sumerian History


During the 5th millennium BC a people known as the Ubaidians established settlements in the region known later as Sumer; these settlements gradually developed

into the chief Sumerian cities, namely Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. Several centuries later, as the Ubaidian settlers prospered,

Semites from Syrian and Arabian deserts began to infiltrate, both as peaceful immigrants and as raiders in quest of booty. After about 3250 BC, another people

migrated from its homeland, located probably northeast of Mesopotamia, and began to intermarry with the native population. The newcomers, who became known as

Sumerians, spoke an agglutinative language unrelated apparently to any other known language.


In the centuries that followed the immigration of the Sumerians, the country grew rich and powerful. Art and architecture, crafts, and religious and ethical

thought flourished. The Sumerian language became the prevailing speech of the land, and the people here developed the cuneiform script, a system of writing

on clay. This script was to become the basic means of written communication throughout the Middle East for about 2000 years.


The first Sumerian ruler of historical record, Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in a document written centuries later as the "man

who stabilized all the lands." Shortly after his reign ended, a king named Meskiaggasher founded a rival dynasty at Erech (Uruk), far to the south of Kish.

Meskiaggasher, who won control of the region extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Zagros Mountains, was succeeded by his son Enmerkar (flourished about

2750 BC). The latter’s reign was notable for an expedition against Aratta, a city-state far to the northeast of Mesopotamia. Enmerkar was succeeded by Lugalbanda,

one of his military leaders. The exploits and conquests of Enmerkar and Lugalbanda form the subject of a cycle of epic tales constituting the most important source

of information on early Sumerian history.


At the end of Lugalbanda’s reign, Enmebaragesi (flourished about 2700 BC), a king of the Etana dynasty at Kish, became the leading ruler of Sumer. His outstanding

achievements included a victory over the country of Elam and the construction at Nippur of the Temple of Enlil, the leading deity of the Sumerian pantheon. Nippur

gradually became the spiritual and cultural center of Sumer.


Enmebaragesi’s son Agga (probably died before 2650 BC), the last ruler of the Etana dynasty, was defeated by Mesanepada, king of Ur (fl. about 2670 BC), who founded

the so-called 1st Dynasty of Ur and made Ur the capital of Sumer. Soon after the death of Mesanepada, the city of Erech achieved a position of political prominence

under the leadership of Gilgamesh (flourished about 2700-2650 BC), whose deeds are celebrated in stories and legends.


Sometime before the 25th century bc the Sumerian Empire, under the leadership of Lugalanemundu of Adab (flourished about 2525-2500 BC), was extended from the Zagros

to the Taurus mountains and from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. Subsequently the empire was ruled by Mesilim (fl. about 2500 BC), king of Kish. By the

end of his reign, Sumer had begun to decline. The Sumerian city-states engaged in constant internecine struggle, exhausting their military resources. Eannatum

(fl. about 2425 BC), one of the rulers of Lagash, succeeded in extending his rule throughout Sumer and some of the neighboring lands. His success, however, was

short-lived. The last of his successors, Uruinimgina (fl. about 2365 BC), who was noteworthy for instituting many social reforms, was defeated by Lugalzagesi

(reigned about 2370-2347 BC), the governor of the neighboring city-state of Umma. Thereafter, for about 20 years, Lugalzagesi was the most powerful ruler in

the Middle East.


By the 23rd century bc the power of the Sumerians had declined to such an extent that they could no longer defend themselves against foreign invasion. The Semitic

ruler Sargon I (reigned about 2335-2279 BC), called The Great, succeeded in conquering the entire country. Sargon founded a new capital, called Agade, in the far

north of Sumer and made it the richest and most powerful city in the world. The people of northern Sumer and the conquering invaders, fusing gradually, became known

ethnically and linguistically as Akkadians. The land of Sumer acquired the composite name Sumer and Akkad.


The Akkadian dynasty lasted about a century. During the reign of Sargon’s grandson, Naram-Sin (r. about 2255-2218 BC), the Gutians, a belligerent people from the

Zagros Mountains, sacked and destroyed the city of Agade. They then subjugated and laid waste the whole of Sumer. After several generations the Sumerians threw

off the Gutian yoke. The city of Lagash again achieved prominence, particularly during the reign of Gudea (circa 2144-2124 BC), an extraordinarily pious and capable

governor. Because numerous statues of Gudea have been recovered, he has become the Sumerian best known to the modern world. The Sumerians achieved complete

independence from the Gutians when Utuhegal, king of Erech (reigned about 2120-2112 BC), won a decisive victory later celebrated in Sumerian literature.


One of Utuhegal’s generals, Ur-Nammu (r. 2113-2095 BC), founded the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. In addition to being a successful military leader, he was also a social

reformer and the originator of a law code that antedates that of the Babylonian king Hammurabi by about three centuries (see Hammurabi, Code of). Ur-Nammu’s

son Shulgi (r. 2095-2047 BC) was a successful soldier, a skillful diplomat, and a patron of literature. During his reign the schools and academies of the kingdom



Before the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC the Amorites, Semitic nomads from the desert to the west of Sumer and Akkad, invaded the kingdom. They gradually

became masters of such important cities as Isin and Larsa. The resultant widespread political disorder and confusion encouraged the Elamites to attack (circa 2004 BC)

Ur and to take into captivity its last ruler, Ibbi-Sin (r. 2029-2004 BC).


During the centuries following the fall of Ur bitter intercity struggle for the control of Sumer and Akkad occurred, first between Isin and Larsa and later between

Larsa and Babylon. Hammurabi of Babylon defeated Rim-Sin of Larsa (r. about 1823-1763 BC) and became the sole ruler of Sumer and Akkad. This date probably marks

the end of the Sumerian state. Sumerian civilization, however, was adopted almost in its entirety by Babylonia.


The Emergence Of Civilization In Sumer, c. 3100-2800 B.C.


By 3100 B.C. the population of Sumer had increased to the point where people were living in cities and had developed a preponderance of those elements previously

noted as constituting civilization. Since these included the first evidence of writing, this first phase of Sumerian civilization, to about 28 B.C., is called the

Protoliterate period.


The original homeland of the Sumerians is unknown. It is believed that they came from the east, but whether by sea or from the highlands is unknown. Their language

is not related to those major language families that later appear in the Near East - Semites and Indo-Europeans. (The original home of the Semitic-speaking peoples

is thought to have been the Arabian peninsula, while the Indo-Europeans seem to be migrated from the region north of the Black and Caspian seas. A third, much

smaller language family is the Hamitic, which included the Egyptians and other peoples of northeastern Africa.)


How would life in Protoliterate Sumer have appeared to visitors seeing it for the first time? As they approached Ur, one of about a dozen Sumerian cities, they

would pass farmers working in their fields with ox-drawn plows. They might see some of the workers using bronze sickles. The river would be dotted by boats

carrying produce to and from the city. Dominating the flat countryside would be a ziggurat, a platform (later a lofty terrace, built in the shape of a pyramid)

crowned by a sanctuary, or "high place." This was the "holy of holies," sacred to the local god. Upon entering the city, visitors would see a large number of

specialists pursuing their appointed tasks as agents of the community and not as private entrepreneurs - some craftsmen casting bronze tools and weapons, others

fashioning their wares on the potter's wheel, and merchants arranging to trade grain and manufactures for the metals, stone, lumber, and other essentials not

available in Sumer.


Scribes would be at work incising clay tablets with picture signs. Some tablets might bear the impression of cylinder seals, small stone cylinders engraved with

a design. Examining the clay tablets, the visitors would find that they were memoranda used in administering a temple, which was also a warehouse and workshop.

Some of the scribes might be making an inventory of the goats and sheep received that day for sacrificial use; others might be drawing up wage lists. They would

be using a system of counting based on the unit 60 - the sexagismal system rather than the decimal system which is based on the unit 10. It is still used today

in computing divisions of time and angles.


Certain technical inventions of Protoliterate Sumer eventually made their way to both the Nile and the Indus valleys. Chief among these were the wheeled vehicle

and the potter's wheel. The discovery in Egypt of cylinder seals similar in shape to those used in Sumer attests to contact between the two areas toward the end

of the fourth millennium B.C. Certain early Egyptian art motifs and architectural forms are also thought to be of Sumerian origin. And it is probable that the example

of Sumerian writing stimulated the Egyptians to develop a script of their own.


The Rise of the Sumerian City States


Little is known about the origins of the Sumerian people, who spoke a language totally distinct from that of the Semitic inhabitants of the valleys to the north.

The Sumerians probably moved down into the swamps of the delta under pressure of over-population of the foothills after 3900 B. c. Al- though at first they formed

small agricultural villages, they soon found not only that the richness of the alluvial land permitted greater density of settlement but also that the vast

engineering works in canals and dikes necessary to harness the annual floods required work forces of hundreds of men. Moreover, the layout and clearing of the

canals required expert planning, while the division of the irrigated land, the water, and the crops demanded political control. By 3000 B. c. the Sumerians had

solved this problem by forming "temple-communities," in which a class of priest-bureaucrats con- trolled the political and economic life of the city in the name

of the city gods.


All Sumerian cities recognized a number of gods in common, including Anu the sky god, Enlil the lord of storms, and Ishtar the morning and evening star. The gods

seemed hopelessly violent and unpredictable, and one's life a period of slavery to their whims. The epic poem, The Creation, emphasizes that mortals were created

to enable the gods to give up working. Each city moreover had its own god, who was considered literally to inhabit the temple and who was in theory the owner of

all property within the city. Hence the priests who interpreted the will of the god and controlled the distribution of the economic produce of the city were

venerated for their supernatural and material functions alike. When, after 3000 B. c., the growing warfare among the cities made military leadership vital, the

head of the army who became king assumed an intermediate position between the god, whose agent he was, and the priestly class, whom he had both to use and to

conciliate. Thus, king and priests represented the upper class in a hierarchical society. Below them were the scribes, the secular attendants of the temple,

who supervised every aspect of the city's economic life and who developed a rough judicial system. Outside the temple officials, society was divided between

an elite or noble group of large landowners and military leaders; a heterogeneous group of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen; free peasants who composed the

majority of the population; and slaves.


The Sumerian Achievement


The priests and scribes of the temples must be credited with the great advances made by the Sumerians in both arts and science. Following the invention of cuneiform

writing, a rich epic literature was created, of which the three most impressive survivals are the story of the creation, an epic of the flood which parallels in

many details the Biblical story of Noah, and the Epic of Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh, two-thirds god and one-third man, is the classic hero of Mesopotamian literature,

a majestic, almost overly powerful figure pressing the gods in vain for the secret of immortality. He is also a great lover of his city Uruk; and throughout the

poem we find, perhaps for the first time in literature, the celebration of the appeal of the civilized life of a great city. Gilgamesh, we are told at the start of

the poem, has built the great rampart which still today runs seven miles around the ruins of his city:


Of ramparted Uruk the wall he built. Of hallowed Eanna, the pure sanctuary. Behold its outer wall, whose cornice is like copper. Peer at the inner wall, which

# none can equal. Seize upon the threshold which is of old. Draw near to Eanna the dwelling of Ishtar Which no future kin, no man, can equal. Go up and walk on

the walls of Uruk, Inspect the base terrace, examine the brickwork: Is it not the brickwork of burnt brick? Did not the Seven Sages lay its foundation?


Sculpture, too, advanced to serve the needs of the temples and then of the kings. The earliest statues surviving show bearded figures with wide staring eyes and

piously clasped hands who represent some form of fertility cult. Later work in limestone or alabaster shows the female goddess bringing water, once again the

symbol of fertility, while the achievements of the Akkadian rulers during their brief hegemony are recorded on enormous sandstone tablets. Few portrait busts

cast in antiquity rival the expressive dignity of the head of Sargon of Akkad. Even more demanding in artistic technique were the small cylinder seals used to

roll one's signature into the wet clay of a tablet recording a commercial transaction. Thousands of these tablets have been found in the temple compounds,

proving that the bureaucrats of Sumer had developed a complex commercial system, including con- tracts, grants of credit, loans with interest, and business

partnerships. Moreover, the planning of the vast public works under their control led the priests to develop a useful mathematical notation, including both a

decimal notation and a system based upon 60, which has given us our sixty-second minute, our sixty-minute hour and our division of the circle into 360 degrees.

They invented mathematical tables and used quadratic equations. Both for religious and agricultural purposes, they studied the heavens, and they created a lunar

calendar with a day of 24 hours and a week of seven days. Much of this science was transmitted to the West by the Greeks and later by the Arabs. It is not

surprising, however, that the achievement which the Sumerians themselves admired most was the city itself.


The Sumerian Writing System


Whether the Sumerians were the first to develop writing is uncertain, but theirs is the oldest known writing system. The clay tablets on which they wrote were

very durable when baked. Archaeologists have dug up many thousands of them--some dated earlier than 3000 BC.


The earliest writing of the Sumerians was picture writing similar in some ways to Egyptian hieroglyphs. They began to develop their special style when they found

that on soft, wet clay it was easier to impress a line than to scratch it. To draw the pictures they used a stylus--probably a straight piece of reed with a

three-cornered end.


An unexpected result came about: the stylus could best produce triangular forms (wedges) and straight lines. Curved lines therefore had to be broken up into

a series of straight strokes. Pictures lost their form and became stylized symbols. This kind of writing on clay is called cuneiform, from the Latin cuneus,

meaning "wedge."


A tremendous step forward was accomplished when the symbols came to be associated with the sound of the thing shown rather than with the idea of the thing itself.

Each sign then represented a syllable. Although cuneiform writing was still used long after the alphabet appeared, it never fully developed an alphabet.


As we have noted, the symbols on the oldest Sumerian clay tablets, the world's first writing, were pictures of concrete things such as a person, a sheep, a star,

or a measure of grain. Some of these pictographs also represented ideas; for example, the picture of a foot was used to represent the idea of walking, and a picture

of a mouth joined to that for water meant "to drink." This early pictograph writing gave way to phonetic (or syllabic) writing when the scribes realized that a

sign could represent a sound as well as an object or idea. Thus, the personal name "Kuraka" could be written by combining the pictographs for mountain

(pronounced kur), water (pronounced a), and mouth (pronounced ka). By 2800 B.C., the use of syllabic writing had reduced the number of signs from nearly

two thousand to six hundred.


In writing, a scribe used a reed stylus to make impressions in soft clay tablets. The impressions took on a wedge shape, hence the term cuneiform

(Latin cuneus, "wedge"). The cuneiform system of writing was adopted by many other peoples of the Near East, including the Babylonians, Assyrians, Hittites,

and Persians.


Sumerian Schools


Cuneiform was difficult to learn. To master it children usually went to a temple school. Using a clay tablet as a textbook, the teacher wrote on the

left-hand side, and the pupil copied the model on the right. Any mistakes could be smoothed out. The pupil began by making single wedges in various positions

and then went on to groups of wedges. Thousands of groups had to be mastered. Finally the pupil was assigned a book to copy, but the work was slow and laborious.

Many first chapters of all the important Sumerian works have been handed down from students' tablets, but only fragments of the rest of the books survive.


The pupils also studied arithmetic. The Sumerians based their number system on 10, but they multiplied 10 by 6 to get the next unit. They multiplied 60 by 10,

then multiplied 600 by 6, and so on. (The number 60 has the advantage of being divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30.) The Sumerians also divided

the circle into 360 degrees. From these early people came the word dozen (a fifth of 60) and the division of the clock to measure hours, minutes, and seconds.


The Sumerians had standard measures, with units of length, area, and capacity. Their standard weight was the mina, made up of 60 shekels--about the same weight

as a pound. There was no coined money. Standard weights of silver served as measures of value and as a means of exchange.


From the earliest times the Sumerians had a strong sense of private property. After they learned to write and figure, they kept documents about every acquired

object, including such small items as shoes. Every business transaction had to be recorded. Near the gates of the cities, scribes would sit ready to sell their

services. Their hands would move fast over a lump of clay, turning the stylus. Then the contracting parties added their signatures by means of seals. The usual

seal was an engraved cylinder of stone or metal that could be rolled over wet clay.


In the course of time cuneiform was used for every purpose, just as writing is today--for letters, narratives, prayers and incantations, dictionaries, even

mathematical and astronomical treatises. The Babylonians and Assyrians adapted cuneiform for their own Semitic languages and spread its use to neighboring Syria,

Anatolia, Armenia, and Iran.


Sumerian Cities


Sumerian towns and cities included Eridu, Nippur, Lagash, Kish, and Ur. The cities differed from primitive farming settlements. They were not composed of

family-owned farms, but were ringed by large tracts of land. These tracts were thought to be "owned" by a local god. A priest organized work groups of farmers

to tend the land and provide barley, beans, wheat, olives, grapes, and flax for the community.


These early cities, which existed by 3500 BC, were called temple towns because they were built around the temple of the local god. The temples were eventually

built up on towers called ziggurats (holy mountains), which had ramps or staircases winding up around the exterior. Public buildings and marketplaces were built

around these shrines.


The temple towns grew into city-states, which are considered the basis of the first true civilizations. At a time when only the most rudimentary forms of

transportation and communication were available, the city-state was the most governable type of human settlement. City-states were ruled by leaders, called

ensis, who were probably authorized to control the local irrigation systems. The food surplus provided by the farmers supported these leaders, as well as priests,

artists, craftsmen, and others.


The Sumerians contributed to the development of metalworking, wheeled carts, and potter's wheels. They may have invented the first form of writing. They engraved

pictures on clay tablets in a form of writing known as cuneiform (wedge-shaped). The tablets were used to keep the accounts of the temple food storehouses.

By about 2500 BC these picture-signs were being refined into an alphabet.


The Sumerians developed the first calendar, which they adjusted to the phases of the moon. The lunar calendar was adopted by the Semites, Egyptians, and Greeks.

An increase in trade between Sumerian cities and between Sumeria and other, more distant regions led to the growth of a merchant class.


The Sumerians organized a complex mythology based on the relationships among the various local gods of the temple towns. In Sumerian religion, the most important

gods were seen as human forms of natural forces--sky, sun, earth, water, and storm. These gods, each originally associated with a particular city, were worshiped

not only in the great temples but also in small shrines in family homes.


Warfare between cities eventually led to the rise of kings, called lugals, whose authority replaced that of city-state rulers. Sumeria became a more unified state,

with a common culture and a centralized government. This led to the establishment of a bureaucracy and an army. By 2375 BC, most of Sumer was united under one

king, Lugalzaggisi of Umma.




The Sumerian temple was a small brick house that the god was supposed to visit periodically. It was ornamented so as to recall the reed houses built by the earliest

Sumerians in the valley. This house, however, was set on a brick platform, which became larger and taller as time progressed until the platform at Ur (built around

2100 BC) was 150 by 200 feet (45 by 60 meters) and 75 feet (23 meters) high. These Mesopotamian temple platforms are called ziggurats, a word derived from the

Assyrian ziqquratu, meaning "high." They were symbols in themselves; the ziggurat at Ur was planted with trees to make it represent a mountain. There the god

visited Earth, and the priests climbed to its top to worship.


The ziggurat continued as the essential temple form of Mesopotamia during the later Assyrian and Babylonian eras. In these later times it became taller and more

tower-like, perhaps with a spiral path leading up to the temple at the top. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that the main temple of Babylon, the famous Tower

of Babel, was such a tower divided into seven diminishing stages, each a different color: white, black, purple, blue, orange, silver, and gold.


Each Sumerian city rose up around the shrine of a local god. As a reflection of a city's wealth, its temple became an elaborate structure. The temple buildings

stood on a spacious raised platform reached by staircases and ramps. From the platform rose the temple tower, called a ziggurat (holy mountain), with a circular

staircase or ramp around the outside. On the temple grounds were quarters for priests, officials, accountants, musicians, and singers; treasure chambers;

storehouses for grain, tools, and weapons; and workshops for bakers, pottery makers, brewers, leatherworkers, spinners and weavers, and jewelers. There were also

pens for keeping the sheep and goats that were destined for sacrifice to the temple god.


Horses and camels were still unknown, but sheep, goats, oxen, donkeys, and dogs had been domesticated. The plow had been invented, and the wheel, made from a

solid piece of wood, was used for carts and for shaping pottery. Oxen pulled the carts and plows; donkeys served as pack animals. Bulky goods were moved by boat

on the rivers and canals. The boats were usually hauled from the banks, but sails also were in use. Before 3000 BC the Sumerians had learned to make tools and

weapons by smelting copper with tin to make bronze, a much harder metal than copper alone.


Mud, clay, and reeds were the only materials the Sumerians had in abundance. Trade was therefore necessary to supply the city workers with materials. Merchants

went out in overland caravans or in ships to exchange the products of Sumerian industry for wood, stone, and metals. There are indications that Sumerian sailing

vessels even reached the valley of the Indus River in India. The chief route, however, was around the Fertile Crescent, between the Arabian Desert and the northern

mountains. This route led up the valley of the two rivers, westward to Syria, and down the Mediterranean coast.


The Physical Appearance of the Sumerian City


All of the Sumerian cities were built beside rivers, either on the Tigris or Euphrates or on one of their tributaries. The city rose, inside its brown brick walls,

amid well-watered gardens and pastures won from the swamps. In all directions, the high levees of the irrigation canals led to grain and vegetable fields. The

trading class lived and worked in the harbor area, where the river boats brought such goods as stone, copper, and timber from the north. Most citizens lived within

the walls in small, one-story houses constructed along narrow alleyways, although the more elaborate homes were colonnaded and built around an inner courtyard. By

far the most impressive section of the city was the temple compound, which was surrounded by its own wall. Here were the workshops and homes of large numbers of

temple craftsmen, such as gwiers, jewelers, carpenters, and weavers, the offices and schoolrooms of the scribes, and the commercial and legal offices of the

bureaucrat-priests. The king's palace and graveyard was located near the temple; and, as Leonard Woolley's excavations at Ur proved, an increasingly lavish form

of ceremonial life was organized here as the kings gained greater control over the city's surplus. Woolley himself de- scribed the growing horror his archaeological

party felt as they slowly un- covered the royal graves, because they discovered not only elaborate golden daggers, headdresses of gold, lapis lazuli and camelian,

fantastically worked heads of bulls, harps and lyres, sledges and chariots, but also lines of elegantly costumed skeletons laid carefully in rows. In a gigantic

mass suicide, probably through the drinking of a drug, the king's courtiers and some of his soldiers had gone to their deaths with their master.


The most elaborate of the Sumerian buildings was the temple or ziggurat. Normally a huge platform or terrace was first constructed, upon which the temple could be

built; but in later times, as the terraces grew to be like artificial mountains, they were built in huge steps or levels mounted by an elaborate stairway clearly

symbolizing the ascent toward heaven. The purpose of these ziggurats is still unclear. We do know that they were not burial chambers like the pyramids of Egypt ,

nor were they for human sacrifice like the pyramids of Aztec Mexico. It has been suggested that they were a nostalgic re-creation of the mountains the original

settlers had left, or an at- tempt to raise the city's god above the material life of the streets below, or an attempt to reach closer to heaven. We do know that

the creation of a temple was regarded as a god-imposed task for every ruler of any ambition. Gudea, ruler of Lagash about 2000 B. c., built fifteen large temples

with the aid of the gods: "Inscrutable as the sky, the wisdom of the Lord, of Ningirsu, the son of Enlil, will soothe thee," he was told. "He will reveal to thee

the plan of His temple, and the Warrior whose decrees are great will build it for thee." The task proved enormous.


[Gudea purified the holy city and encircled it with fires .... He collected clay in a very pure place; in a pure place he made with it the brick and put the brick

into the mold. He followed the rites in all their splendor: he purified the foundations of the temple, surrounded it with fires, anointed the platform with an

aromatic balm...


Gudea, the great en-priest of Ningirsu, made a path in the Cedar mountains which nobody had entered before; he cut its cedars with great axes. . . . Like giant

snakes, cedars were floating down the water....


In the quarries which nobody had entered before, Gudea, the great en- priest of Ningirsu, made a path, and then the stones were delivered in large blocks.... Many

other precious metals were carried to the ensi. From the Copper mountain of Kimash ... its copper was mined in clusters; gold was delivered from its mountains

as dust .... For Gudea, they mined silver from its mountains, delivered red stone from Aeluhha in great amount ....


Finally, when the temple was finished, Gudea declared proudly: "Respect for the temple pervades the country; the fear of it fills the strangers; the brilliance of

the Eninnu enfolds the universe like a mantle.


Stories of Gods and Heroes


As the people in a city-state became familiar with the gods of other cities, they worked out relationships between them, just as the Greeks and Romans did in their

myths centuries later. Sometimes two or more gods came to be viewed as one. Eventually a ranking order developed among the gods. Anu, a sky god who originally had

been the city god of Uruk, came to be regarded as the greatest of them all--the god of the heavens. His closest rival was the storm god of the air, Enlil of Nippur.

The great gods were worshiped in the temples. Each family had little clay figures of its own household gods and small houses or wall niches for them.


The Sumerians believed that their ancestors had created the ground they lived on by separating it from the water. According to their creation myth, the world was

once watery chaos. The mother of Chaos was Tiamat, an immense dragon. When the gods appeared to bring order out of Chaos, Tiamat created an army of dragons. Enlil

called the winds to his aid. Tiamat came forward, her mouth wide open. Enlil pushed the winds inside her and she swelled up so that she could not move. Then Enlil

split her body open. He laid half of the body flat to form the Earth, with the other half arched over it to form the sky. The gods then beheaded Tiamat's husband

and created mankind from his blood, mixed with clay.


The longest story is the Gilgamesh epic, one of the outstanding works of ancient literature. The superhero Gilgamesh originally appeared in Sumerian mythology as

a legendary king of Uruk. A long Babylonian poem includes an account of his journey to the bottom of the sea to obtain the plant of life. As he stopped to bathe at

a spring on the way home, a hungry snake snatched the plant. When Gilgamesh saw the creature cast off its old skin to become young again, it seemed to him a sign

that old age was the fate of humans.


Another searcher for eternal life was Adapa, a fisherman who gained wisdom from Ea, the god of water. The other gods were jealous of his knowledge and called him

to heaven. Ea warned him not to drink or eat while there. Anu offered him the water of life and the bread of life because he thought that, since Adapa already

knew too much, he might as well be a god. Adapa, however, refused and went back to Earth to die, thus losing for himself and for mankind the gift of immortal life.

These legends somewhat resemble the Bible story of Adam and Eve. It is highly probable, in fact, that the ancient legends and myths of Mesopotamia supplied material

that was reworked by the biblical authors.


It was during the Sumerian era that a great flood overwhelmed Mesopotamia. So great was this flood that stories about it worked their way into several ancient

literatures. The Sumerian counterpart of Noah was Ziusudra, and from him was developed the Babylonian figure Utnapishtim, whose story of the flood was related

in the 'Epic of Gilgamesh'. Immortal after his escape from the flood, Utnapishtim was also the wise man who told Gilgamesh where to find the youth-restoring plant.


The Old Sumerian Period, c. 2800-2300 B.C.


By 2800 B.C., the Sumerian cities had emerged into the light of history. This first historical age, called the Old Sumerian (or Early Dynastic) period, was

characterized by incessant warfare as each city sought to protect or enlarge its land and water rights. Each city-state was a theocracy, for the chief local

god was believed to be the real sovereign. The god's earthly representative was the ensi, the high priest and city governor, who acted as the god's steward in

both religious and secular functions. Though endowed with divine right by virtue of being the human agent of the god, the ensi was not considered divine.


Early Sumerian society was highly collectivized, with the temples of the city god and subordinate deities assuming a central role. "Each temple owned lands

which formed the estate of its divine owners. Each citizen belonged to one of the temples, and the whole of a temple community - the officials and priests,

herdsmen and fishermen, gardeners, craftsmen, stonecutters, merchants, and even slaves - was referred to as 'the people of the god X.'" ^6 That part of the

temple land called 'common' was worked by all members of the community, while the remaining land was divided among the citizens for their support at a rental

of from one third to one sixth of the crop. Priests and temple administrators, however, held rent-free lands.


[Footnote 6: H. Frankfort, The Birth of Civilization in the Near East (London:


Williams and Norgate, 1951), p. 60.]


In addition to the temples lands, a considerable part of a city's territory originally consisted of land collectively owned by clans, kinship groups comprising

a number of extended families. By 2600 B.C., these clan lands were becoming the private property of great landowners called lugals (literally "great men").

Deeds of sale record the transfer of clan lands to private owners in return for substantial payments in copper to a few clan leaders and insignificant grants

of food to the remaining clan members. These private estates were worked by "clients" whose status resembled that of the dependents of the temples.


In time, priests, administrators, and ensis became venal, usurping property and oppressing the common people. This frequently led to the rise of despots who

came to power on a wave of popular discontent. Since these despots were usually lugals, lugal became a political title and is generally translated as "king."


The Sumerian lugals made the general welfare their major concern. Best known is Urukagina, who declared himself lugal of Lagash near the end of the Old Sumerian

period and ended the rule of priests and "powerful men," each of whom, he claimed, was guilty of acting "for his own benefit." Urukagina's inscriptions describe

his many reforms and conclude: "He freed the inhabitants of Lagash from usury, burdensome controls, hunger, theft, murder, and seizure

(of their property and persons). He established freedom. The widow and the orphan were no longer at the mercy of the powerful man." ^7


[Footnote 7: "The Reforms of Urukagina" in Nels M. Bailkey, ed., Readings in


Ancient History: Thought and Experience from Gilgamesh to St. Augustine, 4th


ed. (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1992), p. 21.]


The Fall of the Sumerian Cities


Around 2000 B. c. both Sumer and Akkad were attacked by barbarian invaders. The Amorites from Syria seized control in Akkad , and built a powerful new state

around the city of Babylon . The Elamites from Iran took the city of Ur , sacked it, and burnt it down. When Ur was later rebuilt under Babylonian rule, its

inhabitants remembered with terror the Elamite destruction of their beloved city:


0 Father Nanna, that city into ruins was made ...Its people, not potsherds, filled its sides; Its walls were breached; the people groan. In its lofty gates,

where they were wont to promenade, dead bodies were lying about; in its boulevards, where the feasts were celebrated, scattered they lay. In all its streets,

where they were wont to promenade, dead bodies were lying about; In its places, where the festivities of the land took place, the people lay in heaps ... Ur

-its weak and its strong perished through hunger; Mothers and fathers who did not leave their houses were overcome by fire; The young, lying on their

mothers' laps, like fish were carried off by the waters; In the city the wife was abandoned, the son was abandoned, the possessions were scattered

about...0 Nanna, Ur has been destroyed, its people have been dispersed.


The Last of the Sumerians



Within a few centuries the Sumerians had built up a society based in 12 city-states: Kish, Uruk (in the Bible, Erech), Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab,

Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, and Larsa. According to one of the earliest historical documents, the Sumerian King List, eight kings of Sumer reigned before the

famous flood. Afterwards various city-states by turns became the temporary seat of power until about 2800 BC, when they were united under the rule of one

king--Etana of Kish. After Etana, the city-states vied for domination; this weakened the Sumerians, and they were ripe for conquest--first by Elamites, then

by Akkadians.


The Sumerians had never been very warlike, and they had only a citizen army, called to arms in time of danger. In about 2340 BC King Sargon of Akkad conquered

them and went on to build an empire that stretched westward to the Mediterranean Sea. The empire, though short-lived, fostered art and literature.


Led by Ur, the Sumerians again spread their rule far westward. During Ur's supremacy (about 2150 to 2050 BC) Sumerian culture reached its highest development.

Shortly thereafter the cities lost their independence forever, and gradually the Sumerians completely disappeared as a people. Their language, however, lived on

as the language of culture. Their writing, their business organization, their scientific knowledge, and their mythology and law were spread westward by the

Babylonians and Assyrians




Before the mid-19th century AD, the existence of the Sumerian people and language was not suspected. The first major excavations leading to the discovery of Sumer

were conducted (1842-1854) at Assyrian sites such as Nineveh, Dur Sharrukin, and Calah by the French archaeologists Paul Émile Botta and Victor Place; the

British archaeologists Sir Austen Henry Layard and Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson; and the Iraqi archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam. Thousands of tablets and

inscriptions dating from the 1st millennium bc, the vast majority written in Akkadian, were uncovered. Thus, scholars assumed at first that all Mesopotamian

cuneiform inscriptions were in the Akkadian language. Rawlinson and the Irish clergyman Edward Hincks made a study of the inscriptions, however, and discovered

that some were in a non-Semitic language. In 1869 the French archaeologist Jules Oppert suggested that the name Sumerian, from the royal title King of Sumer and

Akkad appearing in numerous inscriptions, be applied to the language.


In the late 19th century, a series of excavations was undertaken at Lagash by French archaeologists working under the direction of the Louvre and at Nippur by

Americans under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania. The French excavations at Lagash were conducted from 1877 to 1900 by Ernest de Sarzec; from 1903

to 1909 by Gaston Cros; from 1929 to 1931 by Henri de Genouillac; and from 1931 to 1933 by André Parrot. The excavations at Nippur were conducted (1889-1900)

by John Punnett Peters, John Henry Haynes, and Hermann Vollrat Hilprecht. Since 1948, excavations have been conducted by archaeologists working under the

direction of the University of Pennsylvania, the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, and the American Schools of Oriental Research (after 1957

under the sole direction of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago). Other Sumerian excavations have been conducted at Kish, Adab, Erech, Eridu,

Eshnunna, Jemdet Nasr, Shuruppak, Tell al-Ubaid, Tutub, and Ur. The canalled city of Kish, which was situated 13 km (8 mi) east of Babylon on the Euphrates

River, is known to have been one of the most important cities of Sumer. Extensive excavations since 1922 have uncovered an invaluable sequence of pottery.

Archaeologists also unearthed a temple of Nebuchadnezzar II and Nabonidus (r. 556-539 BC) and the palace of Sargon of Akkad, ruins that date from the

3rd millennium BC to about 550 BC.


Primary Author: Robert A. Guisepi


Portions of this work Contributed By:

F. Roy Willis of the University of California


The base of all religion begins with "EL (The first God of everything)"I dont believe i know theres a spirit that manifests through everything that is.So dont think im trying to make you a non believer,as believeing in something is to not understand the true complexity so you "believe"


El god of saturn,all basis of gods and punishment came from El and his of spring.Even greek mythology all is based round Els sons and daughters,Hadad,Yam ("sea") and Mot("death") who all share the same principles as the gods of greek mythology "Zeus,Poseidon and Hades". Ēl (rendered Elus or called by his standard Greek counterpart Cronus.The hebrew belief system comes from el olam "god eternal".(Three pantheon lists found at Ugarit begin with the four Gods ’il-’ib (which according to Cross (1973; p. 14) is the name of a generic kind of deity, perhaps the divine ancestor of the people), Ēl, Dagnu (that is Dagon), and Ba’l Ṣapān (that is the God Haddu or Hadad).[17] Though Ugarit had a large temple dedicated to Dagon and another to Hadad, there was no temple dedicated to Ēl."Bal -cabal", jewish form of the teachings and beliefs.The beliefs are based on astrotheolegy,worship of the 12 sycles. Planets like saturn and so on. (thats how you have 12 apostles,12 months) .Then the fact of the sun rises and gives life so thats why catholics believe jesus rose from the dead, is just a metaphore of the sun of god which rises each day and saves mankind and gives life.Even muslim religion also comes from these teachings,like on the arab countrys flag you have a half crescent moon and star.Sound familliar with worship of the planets and stars.Even monks go OMB,another of Els creations.


King in old english was curt, and from curt you get Church.Church comes from curt which comes from Source of greek mythology whom took people into her home and turned them into beasts and then ate them as they were no longer human,this is exactly what the church is doing now"taking you into her home and turning you into a beast who then can be took care of by nations who EAT YOU and treat you like a beast throwing you in jail so she can eat of you.




This is about Russia controling there bases,which i dont believe they should have in the first place but

they are and this is a strange age when a big country can just asert itself in anothers land with a few bucks and take for decades.To much of pipelines in Ukraine are needed to much by Russia so its everyones agenda to get in controle of the lands to have Russia were they want.Same with Syria it was the re-start of tention with Russia as Syria was backed by Russia.


The peoples leaders have took the baight now but so now they have to deal with that asset being draind long after the moneys gone.


The Thule Society of which Hitler hid from for fear of possible missunderstanding or just he didnt want enyone to know of his quest for spiritual intelligance of which up untill now i thaugt were all hack jobs of him,to turn his image of the one trying to free people "his speaches are powerfull but only know can i see how cunning he was at the art of minipulation.But untill i read his books and look at all the facts then im only surmising.History is wrote by winners and they tend to leave out there own miss-deeds and blow up the other as the bad one,and with churchill and the hidden communication lines with the presidant that was alwasy to secreat to record "a red flag for me"and ive heard of people who were abused by churchill so i dont think eny one was really the good guy,just all in search for control.And for the record my granda went to fight against hitler and ended up in a jungle for 3 years which ruined his family life as my gran re married ,but he through the guy out and said give him his stuff back, and went a walk while he said his words to my im not of cowards by far and am no coward just dont think history ever has told me the truth untill i done my own research,and am far from a hitler fan as all his speeches were about helping the pour countrys after the made germany strong but even in illness that was going to kill him should not have been enough for him to start to invade other countrys for is he was adimit they would have joined in his plans,then again i would have lost it to if the zionists spreaded propaganda about me just to get a home land of the british in which they did not even have control of,And now look at palastine they made them just sign an agreement to stay of the land or face procecution from isreal when they fucking let them in as friends who they thaught were hard done by,which they were but george sorros was the most influentual at catching the jewish people and aol give him awards on be half of isreal.Come on a country for a religious people and they need weapons of mass destruction but you dont see eny one telling them to stop even though they said the will bomb palastines bases so they can not retaliate,rules for the rulers and no freedom for the kind people who let them in ,the way of the world i say the imagrants who are in grave danger are in grave danger for a reason ,unless by there gov then let them in and the doctors who want a better life yes but as to open boarders while england allow in thousands day in day out ,were will they go when a sival war of imagrants fight the home english as they are now living in containers due to imagration of million airs puting the house prices through the roof and the printing of fiat money that is now documented in the UK yet they wont answer on it.


Thule emblem 1919


‘When I first knew Adolf Hitler in Munich, in 1921 and 1922, he was in touch with a circle that believed firmly in the portents of the stars,’ remembered prominent American journalist Karl H. von Wiegand in an interview with Cosmopolitan magazine in 1939.1


The ‘circle’ mentioned here by the chief correspondent from Hearst International News Service was a society listed in the Munich Register of Associations as a harmless study group that researched early German history. Members were affluent, influential people from Munich society: professors, noblemen, manufacturers, senior officials, businesspeople. Before Hitler came into contact with the Thule Society in 1919, the group had already been organising public talks on various Celtic and Teutonic cultural topics for some time. However, the public was not aware of what took place at the secret meetings, to which only Thule members were invited.


In reality, the Thule Society was much more than an innocent study group: it was a secret brotherhood. The emblem of the Thule Society was the swastika (facing counter-clockwise like the Nazi symbol) and a dagger. The name Thule referred to the old Ultima Thule, the Land of the North, the mythological homeland of the Teutons. Like Atlantis, legend had it that Thule was a vanished civilisation. The members of the Thule Society believed that the lost civilisation of the Teutons had possessed psychic abilities that were far beyond the technical achievements of the twentieth century. They hoped to rediscover the secrets of this legendary civilisation through occult practises.


There were ‘Teutonic’ secret societies of this kind in Austria and Germany from the mid-nineteenth century. The spiritual concepts of these factions can be grouped under the term ‘Ariosophy’, coined by the Austrian seer Guido von List.2 These Ariosophic groups were independent of each other organisationally, although many of them were more or less closely linked through personal friendships and mutual members. The notions of the Ariosophes referred to Hindu, Gnostic and hermetic ideas. Magical practises from early and medieval Teutonic times played an important part and the different groups were influenced variously by the Pythagorists, the Neoplatonics, the British mystic Madame Blavatsky, the Rosicrucians, Jakob Böhme, Paracelsus and others. As different as the mystic/magical concepts of the individual groups were, they were linked by their belief in the racist philosophy of Guido von List, which asserted the superiority of the Aryans. In their organisational structure, rituals and terminology, the Ariosophic groups resembled the Freemasons, whom they nevertheless rejected due to their supposed ‘infiltration by Jews’. As with the Freemasons, there were different levels of initiation in the Ariosophes. The members were gradually introduced to the practises of ritual magic. In these rituals, light, colours, rhythms, symbols or aromas were used to focus mental powers and channel them in a specific direction. The Ariosophes believed this would enable them to bring about changes on the material plane.3


The Thule Society was the Bavarian branch of the Ariosophic Germanenorden (Teutonic Order), an association of occultists formed in Leipzig in 1912 by the esoteric and anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch. In 1916, after a meeting with Fritsch, Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff assumed leadership of the Bavarian arm, calling it the Thule Society.5 Sebottendorff was an adventurer and occultist, born in Hoyerswerda, Saxony, in 1875 under the name Ernst Rudolf Glauer. In his autobiography Der Talisman des Rosenkreuzers (The Talisman of the Rosicrucian), Sebottenorff discusses his life, which N. Goodrick-Clarke has researched in more detail.6 Glauer-Sebottendorff had worked on ships, travelling to New York, Sydney, Cairo and Constantinople. He eventually settled in Turkey and there first became involved with occultism. He established contact with the Mevlevi sect of the Whirling Dervishes and was acquainted with the teaching of the Sufis. In his studies, Glauer-Sebottendorff came to the conclusion that Islamic mysticism had Aryan roots. This opinion linked him with Guido von List. The forefather of Ariosophy proclaimed that not just Islam but all religious systems were derived from one single original religion, the religion of the Aryans. In 1910, Glauer-Sebottendorff founded a mystic lodge in Constantinople. One year later, he was adopted by Baron Heinrich von Sebottendorff, and so became a baron himself. He returned to Germany in 1913 and married the daughter of a prosperous Berlin businessman. Three years later, he assumed leadership of the Thule Society in Munich.


Women were scarcely represented in the Thule Society, the higher levels of initiation being reserved exclusively for men. Those wishing to join had to complete a questionnaire and submit a photograph, which was examined for purity of race. The following ‘blood declaration’ also had to be filed: ‘The undersigned assures to the best of his knowledge and conscience that no Jewish or coloured blood flows through his veins or those of this wife and that there are no family members of coloured race among his forefathers.’7 Unlike most other Ariosophic groups, the Thule Society was not content merely with influencing material circumstances through visualisations and ritual magic: the group was also politically active. When the Bavarian King was deposed and the communists took power in November 1918, the opulent meeting place of the Thule Society, the luxury Four Seasons Hotel, became a centre of counter-revolutionary activities.8 The Thule Society also set up a fighting division that took an active part in the power struggle during the revolution in Munich.9 In April 1919, it enlisted volunteers, who were smuggled by train in their hundreds to Eichstätt to participate in the attack against the communist regime from there.10 After the overthrow of the communist government in May 1919, the Thule Society shifted its political activities to the field of propaganda. In October 1918, when German defeat in the First World War was imminent, the Thule Society established a Political Workers’ Union, from which the DAP (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei, German Workers’ Party) arose. Individual Thule members then appeared as speakers in the DAP. As depicted in this novel, Hitler came across the small, insignificant party during a lecture in September 1919. Soon afterwards, he became the fifty-fifth member of the party. Hitler must have quickly realised who was behind the DAP, because he promptly demanded an end to the influence of the Thule Society over the party. Two months after Hitler joined he set down points of order that stated: ‘Excludes all forms of dictation [for the party committee] by a superior or lateral government, whether it be a circle or lodge, once and for all’.11

Hitler's DAP membership card


Hitler's DAP membership card


This put an end to the Thule Society’s influence over the DAP. Thule party chairman Karl Harrer resigned. However, some Thule members maintained close contact with Hitler after separation of the Thule Society and DAP, most notably the eventual Deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess, and the subsequent editor-in-chief of the most important Nazi paper, the Völkischer Beobachter (Nationalist Observer), Dietrich Eckart. It is known that Eckart soon came to see Hitler as the long-awaited ‘saviour’.12 Rudolf Hess also seems to have been mesmerised by Hitler. Most Thules saw Hitler as the ‘drummer’, the herald, the prophet of who was to come. Some, like Rudolf Hess, might have seen him from the very beginning as being ‘the one’. But certainly there were also other opinions of Hitler in the Thule Society. It is very likely that the ex-DAP chairman Harrer was not the only one to reject the monopolisation of the party by Hitler. It seems reasonable to assume that Hitler would have been the cause of disagreements and divisions within the Thule Society.


At any rate, after Hitler joined the DAP, the Thule Society fell quiet. It was not involved in the power struggles between the different radical right-wing groups and splinter groups in Munich at the start of the 1920s. It is not proven that Hitler ever set foot in the meeting rooms of the Thule Society in the Four Seasons Hotel. Johannes Hering’s notes on meetings of the Thule Society between 1920 and 1923 mention the presence of several Nazi leaders but never Hitler himself.13 Hitler certainly knew how to use his contacts with influential Thule members to his advantage. Their patronage and financial support was of decisive importance during the initial period of his rise. Dietrich Eckart put Hitler in contact with affluent Munich residents, and Thule sympathiser Wilhelm Frick, advisor of Munich’s Chief of Police, guarded his party protectively.


Driven by Hitler’s relentless propaganda, the DAP (which Hitler renamed the NSDAP) rapidly developed into a mass movement. The National Socialist movement no longer had anything in common with the conspiratorial gatherings of the Thule members. The dignified atmosphere of the Four Seasons with talks on the early Teutonic age and magic initiation rituals as outlined by Guido von List was in stark contrast to the party meetings in beer cellars, where drunkenness, raucousness and often brawls were commonplace. The mass deployments of the SA (Stormtroopers) were also a world apart from the rarefied atmosphere of the luxury hotel. It is hardly surprising that the number of Thule members who joined the NSDAP was relatively low. However, some of those who did join the party later took up important positions.14


After 1926, there were no further signs of life from the Thule Society, but it reappeared with the triumph of the Nazis in 1933. Sebottendorff, who had lived abroad since 1919, re-emerged in Munich and published a book entitled Bevor Hitler kam (Before Hitler Came). He also published a magazine, the Thule Bote (Thule Herald), and organised Thule meetings at the Four Seasons Hotel again. However, the rebirth of the Thule Society was short-lived. When the second edition of Sebottendorff’s book was about to appear in 1934, it was seized by the Nazis and the author was imprisoned. His fate had been sealed when he claimed that Hitler owed his initial successes to the Thule Society. Hitler, who never mentioned the Thule Society in Mein Kampf or elsewhere, knew that it could only harm him politically if it were to emerge that such a close link existed between an obscure society of spiritualists and the start of his movement. There are contradictory accounts of Sebottendorff’s eventual fate. N. Goodrick-Clarke reports that Sebottendorff travelled through Switzerland to Turkey, where he committed suicide in 1945 after Germany’s defeat. Reginald H. Phelps quotes Sebottendorff’s publisher, H. G. Grassinger, who claims that Sebottendorff was killed by the Nazis. The Thule Society continued to exist officially until 1937 and then quietly disbanded.


The Thule Society is significant to the Nazi movement not just because Hitler assumed control of the DAP from it. Sebottendorff, the Grandmaster of the Thule Society, was also the owner of the Eher publishing house, which Hitler bought in 1920 and turned the newspaper produced there into the Völkischer Beobachter (Nationalist Observer), which quickly became the most important weapon in the Nazi propaganda arsenal.15 Additionally, evidence suggests that Hitler also appropriated the Thule Society’s emblem, the swastika, as well as the ‘Sieg Heil’ form of greeting.16


Hitler took the party, his first supporters, the newspaper, the gestures and the swastika from the Thule Society and used these external aspects as a ‘suit of armour’ (in the words of Sebottendorff).The Grand Master of the Thule brotherhood is not exaggerating when he claims that it was this ‘suit of armour’ that helped Hitler to gain power in a period of time that would otherwise seem unnaturally short. The many links between Hitler and the Thule Society have been proven incontrovertibly by historical research. The counter-revolutionary activities of the Thule members during the revolutionary period in Munich have been examined and documented in detail. Conversely, the occult background of this secret society – the rituals and esoteric teachings of the Ariosophes – is barely acknowledged in serious historical texts and is often not even mentioned. There are, however, countless non-scientific books that deal mainly with the occult aspect of the Thule Society. As the correlation between the Thule Society and the beginnings of the Nazi movement is not disputed, the fact that the Thule Society was also an occult lodge opens up a virtually endless realm of possible speculation. Some ‘Nazi occult’ authors come to the conclusion that the roots of National Socialism can be found in the occult philosophies of the Thule Society. However, this is not strictly accurate. The extent to which certain aspects of Guido von List’s world view may have been incorporated into Nazi ideology is discussed in more detail in Appendix 34, Guido von List.


Historical science may never have addressed the theories of Nazi occult authors seriously, but the flood of Nazi occult publications has created its own reality over time. In the world of these theories, National Socialism becomes a movement controlled by higher powers. Some authors claim that Hitler was used by the Thule members for their purposes. Hidden Masters of the Thule Society allegedly manipulated Hitler using telepathy and turned him into a medium. Other authors claim that Hitler was instructed in magical practises by the Thule Society. However, there is not the slightest evidence of the secret command group that was supposed to have controlled Hitler, or of Hitler’s occult leanings.17 What can be said with great certainty on the basis of historically proven fact is that Hitler exploited the Thules, and not vice versa. He maintained the necessary contact as long as it was advantageous to him. Once he no longer needed the Thule Society, he ignored it and denied it. However, that does not mean that the mystic notions of the Thules did not play a significant part in Hitler’s rise. On the contrary: what would have become of Hitler if he had not come across this society? What would have become of his delusions if certain members of this group of influential people had not validated them? This in turn could only happen because the spiritual beliefs of the Thules led them to expect a messianic figure, a saviour, referred to as ‘der Starke von Oben’ (literally: the Strong One from above). The myth that immediately formed around Hitler and was instrumental in his meteoric rise to power has its origin in the beliefs of the faithful disciples of Thule.18


1 Karl H. von Wiegand, ‘Hitler Foresees His End’, Cosmopolitan, New York, April 1939, p.152 quoted from: R. Binion, op. cit.

2 See: Appendix 34, Guido von List

3 This information is contained, for example, in: N. Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, New York 1985, p.17ff. See also: D. Rose, op. cit., p.19ff

4See also: P.G.J. Pulzer, Die Entstehung des politischen Antisemitismus in Deutschland und Österreich 1867–1914, Gütersloh, 1966. Pulzer described Fritsch (1852–1934) as the ‘most important anti-Semite before Hitler’. Fritsch’s Handbuch der Judenfrage was reissued dozens of times

5 R. Sebottendorff, Bevor Hitler kam, Munich 1933, pp.53, 62. According to Rudolf von Sebottendorff, the Thule Society had 250 members in Munich and 1,500 throughout Bavaria in November 1918

6 N. Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit., p.135ff

7 R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., p.42

8 The Thule Society also invited other nationalistic groups to conspiratorial meetings at the Four Seasons. These included the Alldeutschen (All-Germans); Rohmeder’s Schulverein (School Association); and the Hammerbund (Hammer League). See also: R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., p.62

9 The Thule Battle League had a branch on the outskirts of Munich in Eching and maintained contact with the legal Bavarian government in Bamberg. Members of the League carried out acts of sabotage against Munich’s Red Army and planned to kidnap the communist state leader, Kurt Eisner. It appears that there was also a connection between the Thule Society and Eisner’s murderer, Count Arco-Valley. See also: H. J. Kuron, Freikorps and Bund Oberland (Dissertation, Erlangen. n.d. [1960]), pp.16–19; R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., pp.106–13; D. Rose, op. cit., pp.39, 43; H. Gilbhart, op. cit., p.92

10 See also: H. Gilbhart, op. cit.; D. Rose, op. cit.. On the 19th of April 1919, Sebottendortff was authorized by Bamberg to set up a freecorps. Consequently he opened a recruitment office in the Hotel Deutscher Kaiser in Nuremberg (R. Sebottendorff, op. cit., pp.125–34.) Sebottendorff’s account is confirmed by the Nuremberg Thule member Franz Müller (‘Erfahrungen eines alten Vorkämpfers’, HA Koblenz No. 1249, see: R. Phelps, ‘Before Hitler Came’, Journal of Modern History, 1963, p.259.) Sebottendorff’s ‘Oberland’ freecorps then took part in the conquest of Munich. The freecorps fought along the Ruhr in 1920 and against Poland in Oberschlesien in 1921. The successor, Bund Oberland, played an important part in Hitler’s coup in 1923

11 Draft of standing orders for the DAP from December 1919, BA Koblenz NS2627 quoted from: A. Joachimsthaler, op. cit., Munich 2000, p.265

12 See: Appendix 35, The Expected Saviour

13 Johannes Hering, 'Beiträge zur Geschichte der Thulegesellschaft', manuscript from 21 June 1939, HA Koblenz, NS 26/865, quoted from: N. Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit., p.201

14 See: Appedix 41, Prominent Thule Members

15 SSee: Appendix 42, Völkischer Beobachter

16 See: Appendix 39, The Swastika. See also: F. Willing, op. cit., p.87: ‘The “heil” greeting gradually appeared in the Munich National Socialist Party in 1920. It was already in use before World War I by the Austrian nationalist movement, which had adopted it from the nationalist associations of the Altreich [old empire].’; H.Bühmann, ‘Der Hitlerkult’, in K. Heller, J. Plamper (eds.), Personenkulte im Stalinismus; Göttingen 2004, p.123: ‘The “Heil” greeting evidently comes from the Turner [gymnast] movement, and was therefore part of traditional German usage.’

17 See: Appendix 17, Hitler and the Occult

18 See: Appendix 35, The Expected Saviour


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